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The Economic Burden of Antibiotic Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


A meta-analysis of 29 studies, published from 2016 to 2021, from multiple high-income and upper-to-middle income countries showed that the highest economic impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurred in tertiary care settings. Patients with a resistant infection saw an average increase of 7.4 days in length-of-stay (LOS), while hospitals saw costs rise anywhere from USD $2,300 to $29,000+ per patient episode. The top three most studied resistant bacteria in the economic burden studies were S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. 

Recent publications show that the health and economic burden of AMR is significant, and it affects every country in the world. Based on the available study data, researchers estimated that AMR directly costs the United States $4.6 billion per year and China $42 billion annually.


Ak Narayan Poudel, PhD, Heath Economist and Senior Lecturer, School of Human and Health Sciences at University of Huddersfield, England


Review the meta-analysis at PLoS One.

Read time: 35 minutes

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Public Library of Science (PLOS) ONE
May 8, 2023